Well the simple answer to that question is, your golf club will tell you how far away to stand.
In the same way that the golf club determines where the golf ball should go in your stance, it also determines where you should be standing.
Every one of your golf clubs is constructed with a discreet lie angle. This is the angle that is created between your club-shaft and the ground at address of the ball. The longer the golf club is, the flatter the lie angle will be. A proper driver setup would be much further away from the ball than that of a 9 iron for instance.
Unfortunately, such things as incorrect weight distribution or an incorrect posture can lead to you standing too far or too close to your golf ball, even if your golf club is correctly soled on the ground. This is why it is also important to use not only lie as your guide, but also posture too.
Getting the distance right on each shot
In a standard stance, your weight distribution between your toes and heels should be equal. Your knee flex and forward bend should allow your arms to swing back and forth freely in your swing without catching your hips, knees, or middle.
Now when you’re next setting yourself up for a shot, hang your arms freely out in front of you and place the sole of your club squarely on the ground (The heel and toe of the golf club should touch the ground here).
Make sure your weight distribution is equal and your bend and knee flex is comfortable. This will maintain the the integrity of the lie angle and places you the ideal distance away from the golf ball.
Just remember the important thing is to be comfortable. Use these tips on every shot and you’ll always be the right distance away from your golf ball.